Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2021 Jun 22;S1084-9521(21)00158-0. doi: 10.1016/j.semcdb.2021.06.007.  Online ahead of print.

Alphy John 1, Matteo Rauzi 2


1 Université Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Inserm, Nice, France.
2 Université Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Inserm, Nice, France. Electronic address:


Morphogenesis drives the formation of functional living shapes. Gene expression patterns and signaling pathways define the body plans of the animal and control the morphogenetic processes shaping the embryonic tissues. During embryogenesis, a tissue can undergo composite morphogenesis resulting from multiple concomitant shape changes. While previous studies have unraveled the mechanisms that drive simple morphogenetic processes, how a tissue can undergo multiple and simultaneous changes in shape is still not known and not much explored. In this chapter, we focus on the process of concomitant tissue folding and extension that is vital for the animal since it is key for embryo gastrulation and neurulation. Recent pioneering studies focus on this problem highlighting the roles of different spatially coordinated cell mechanisms or of the synergy between different patterns of gene expression to drive composite morphogenesis.

PMID: 34172395
DOI: 10.1016/j.semcdb.2021.06.007