Int J Mol Sci. 2021 May 5;22(9):4889. doi: 10.3390/ijms22094889.
Rodanthi Lyraki 1, Andreas Schedl 1
1 Université Côte d’Azur, Inserm, CNRS, Institut de Biologie Valrose, 06108 Nice, France.
Many adrenocortical diseases are more prevalent in women than in men, but the reasons underlying this sex bias are still unknown. Recent studies involving gonadectomy and sex hormone replacement experiments in mice have shed some light onto the molecular basis of sexual dimorphism in the adrenal cortex. Indeed, it has been shown that gonadal hormones influence many aspects of adrenal physiology, ranging from stem cell-dependent tissue turnover to steroidogenesis and X-zone dynamics. This article reviews current knowledge on adrenal cortex sexual dimorphism and the potential mechanisms underlying sex hormone influence of adrenal homeostasis. Both topics are expected to contribute to personalized and novel therapeutic approaches in the future.