IL-1β- and IL-4-polarized macrophages have opposite effects on adipogenesis of intramuscular fibro-adipogenic progenitors in humans
Sci Rep. 2018 Nov 19;8(1):17005. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-35429-w.
Moratal C1,2, Raffort J2,3, Arrighi N1, Rekima S1, Schaub S1, Dechesne CA1, Chinetti G2,3, Dani C4.
1 Université Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Inserm, iBV, Nice, France.
2 Université Cote d’Azur, Inserm, C3M, Nice, France.
3 Clinical Chemistry Laboratory, University Hospital of Nice, Nice, France.
4 Université Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Inserm, iBV, Nice, France. email@example.com.
Intramuscular fat deposition represents a negative prognostic factor for several myopathies, metabolic diseases and aging. Fibro-adipogenic progenitors (FAPs) are considered as the main source of intramuscular adipocytes, but the mechanisms controlling their adipogenic potential are still not elucidated in humans. The aim of this study was to explore the regulation of human FAP adipogenesis by macrophages. We found that CD140a-expressing FAPs were located close to CD68 positive macrophages in muscles from patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). This strongly suggests a potential interaction between FAPs and macrophages in vivo. Isolated human primary FAPs were then differentiated in the presence of conditioned media obtained from primary blood monocyte-polarized macrophages. Molecules released by IL-1β-polarized macrophages (M(IL-1β)) drastically reduced FAP adipogenic potential as assessed by decreased cellular lipid accumulation and reduced gene expression of adipogenic markers. This was associated with an increased gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in FAPs. Conversely, factors secreted by IL-4-polarized macrophages (M(IL-4)) enhanced FAP adipogenesis. Finally, the inhibition of FAP adipocyte differentiation by M(IL-1β) macrophages requires the stimulation of Smad2 phosphorylation of FAPs. Our findings identify a novel potential crosstalk between FAPs and M(IL-1β) and M(IL-4) macrophages in the development of adipocyte accumulation in human skeletal muscles.